B.Sc, 1961, Mysore University.
M.Sc, 1963,Geology, Mysore Univesrsity, India.
Ph.D,1988, Precambrian Geology,Mysore University, India.
Demonstrator in Geology, Central College, Bangalore,Mysore University.
( Taught B.Sc and M.Sc, courses)
Assistant Geologist, Department of Mines and Geology, Government of Karnataka. (Mapped cement and flux grade limestones in the Proterozoic Kaladgi basin).
CSIR Research Fellow (Researched on the Geology of Kolar Gold Field)
Research Associate, Central College, Bangalore University, Teaching – cum-research position. Taught B.Sc and M.Sc classes at Central College; researches on Archean Dharwar sequence in the area of Sedimentation and Tectonics).
Lecturer, Mysore University, Mysore and UGC Book writing Fellow, (Taught B.Sc and M.Sc. courses; Researches on sedimentation, tectonics and geochemistry of ultramafic, mafic volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks; interpretation of satellite imageries; prepared draft copy of the book on Physical Geology).
Consulting Geologist, Geomysore Services, Bangalore (Prospecting investigations on chromite, iron, manganese, bauxite, kaolin and commercial granite deposits; preparation of project reports for mineral based industries; geotechnical investigations for dam sites and tunnel alignments. Also conducted soil investigations for earthen dam of the Kudremukh Iron Ore Project along with scientists from the Canadian Met-Chem corporation; investigations for development of ground water resources for rural and urban water supply in the hard-rock terrain of Karnataka under the Ganga-Kalyana scheme of the Government of Karnataka; investigations on ground water pollution by urban sewage and industrial effluents etc. Wrote more than hundred professional reports. Important clients were Mysore Minerals Ltd., Government of Karnataka; Public works Department of Government of Karnataka, Marubeni Corporation, Japan; Tata Exports Ltd., Mumbai; Canadian Met Chem Corp., USA., etc)
Scientist, National Geophysical Research Institute of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Government of India. (Researches on structure, sedimentation, geochemistry, geochronology, radiogenic heat production, and heat flow in the Archean Dharwar craton; geochemistry of the Proterozoic Aravalli, Kaladgi and Cuddapah basin rock formations; drilling investigations in epicentral region of intracontinental earthquake areas of Killari and Koyna areas in the Deccan Trap region of southern India. Published about 100 research papers in national and International journals. Outside India carried out field studies in Minnesota State,
USA; Karelia and Kola Peninsula of the then USSR, now Russia; participated in field excursions in Canada, Western Australia, and Ceylon).
Technical Advisor, Geomysore Services (India) Pvt.Ltd a subsidiary of the Australian Indian Resources Pty Ltd., (Preparation of exploration reports on gold prospecting in the Karnataka, Andhra, Madhya Pradesh states of India; platinum occurrences in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu ; Basemetal deposits in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan; sampling for tin (cassiterite) bearing sands in Orissa and of heavy mineral sands of Kerla coast, study of tectonic setting of kimberlites in southern India, study of thermal springs in Maharashtra State and in the Kulu-Manali region of Himalaya. Organising and conducting of training courses for exploration geologists in Geomysore Services India Pvt.Ltd; Preparation of letters for the Chairman of the Company on policy matters related to mineral industry, participation in meetings with Federation of Mining Industries, State and Central Geological Programming Boards. More than 150 reports and documents prepared).
INSA- Senior Scientist,Documented unmistakable evidences for 2700 Ma glacial deposits in the Archean Dharwar sequence. This glaciation event is the second oldest glaciation event recorded so far in the Earth History. The 2700 Ma glaciation event could have global significance, because such rocks have been found in Botswana of south Africa and Stillwater area of Montana , USA. India was near the pole Ca 2700 Ma.
2016 – 2017:
RASS Research Associate, Indian Institute of Science:Have been working on pre-Pleistocene glacial deposits of India, carrying out U-Pb geochronological and paleomagnetic work ( With Sarangi,ISM and Maibam Bidyananda, Manipur University) . Also working on BIF and carbonate sedimentation constraints from Sr and Nd isotopic systematics with Prof. Balakrishnan, Pondicherry University
2018 till present:
Visiting Professor,Divecha Centre for Climate Change, IISc,While continuing my work which is mentioned under my activity as Research associate, I have worked on Archaean atmospheric density as verified from fossil rain drop imprints.
Have initiated a programme on Geogenic Polutants of groundwater in south Asian Countries. First brain storming session will be held in the DCC on this aspect in June 20-21, 2018.
- Swain, S.K., Sarangi,S., Srinivasan,R., Sarkar,A., Kesarwani,M. and Mazumdar, A., 2018, Stable isotope (C-O-S) and geochemical studies of auriferous quartz-carbonate veins, Neoarchaean orogenic Ajjanhalli and Gadag Gold Fields, Chitradurga Schist belt, Dharwar craton, southern India: Implication for source of gold mineralizing fluids, Ore Geology Reviews, 95,pp.456-479
- Bidyananda, M., Gerdes,A., Srinivasan,R and Goswami, J.N., 2017, U-Pb and Lu-Hf ystematics of zircons from sargur metasediments , Dharwar craton, southern India: new insights on the provenance and crustal evolution, Curr.Sci., 113, pp.1394-14402
- Swain SK, Sarangi S, Srinivasan R, Sarkar A, Bhattacharya S, Patel SC, Pasayat RM, Sawkar , R.H (2015), Isotope (C and O) composition of auriferous quartz carbonate veins, Central Lode System, Gadag Gold Field, Dharwar Craton, India: Implications to source of ore fluids. Ore Geology Review,70, 305-320.
- Subrata Das Sharma and R. Srinivasan, (2015), Stable isotope evidence for ca. 2.7-Ga-old Archean cap carbonates from the Dharwar Supergroup, southern India, Curr.Sci., Vol. 108, pp. 2223-2229.
- Ojakangas, R.W., Srinivasan, R., Hegde,V.S., Chandrakant, S.M. and Srikantia, S.V., (2014) The Talya conglomerate: an Archean (~2.7Ga) glaciomarine formation, Western Dharwar Craton, Southern India, Curr. Sci., Vol.106, pp. 387-396
- Sarangi S, Srinivasan R, Balaram V(2013) REE characteristics of Auriferous Quartz Veins of Archaean Orogenic gold deposits, Chitradurga Schist Belt, Dharwar Craton. Geoscience Frontiers V.4,pp 231-239.
- Sarangi, S, Sarkar, A, Srinivasan, R. and Patel, S.C. (2012) Carbon Isotope studies of auriferous Quartz Carbonate Veins from two Orogenic gold deposits from the Neoarchean Chitradurga Schist Belt, Dharwar Craton, India: evidence for mantle /magmatic source of auriferous fluid. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences V. 52 pp. 1–11.
- Maibam,B., Goswami,J.N. and Srinivasan, R., 2011, Pb-Pb zircon ages of Archean metasediments from the Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for the antiquity of the eastern Dharwar craton, Jour.Earth System Sci., Vol.120, pp.643-661.
- Ray Labani, Roy.S. and Srinivasan,R., 2008, High radiogenic heat production in Kerala Khondalite block, southern granulite province, Intl.Jour.Geology, (Geol.Rundsch.) doi: 10.1007/s 00531-007-0278-8.
- Roy,S., Ray Labani, Bhattacharya, A and Srinivasan,R., 2008, Heat flow and crustal thermal structure in the late Archean Closepet Granite batholith, Intl.Jour.Geol., (Geologische Rundsh), doi;10.1007/s00531-007-0239.
- Sukanta Roy and R. Srinivasan, 2008, Heat flow studies in India, Indian National Report to IUGS 2003-2007.
- G. Parthasarathy, R. Srinivasan, G.D. Mukherjee, G. Bansal, Ashok Chatterjee, (2007).Thermal Expansion study of a uvarovite rich garnet. International Journal of Modern Physics B.21-1915-1922
- Halls,H., Kumar, A., Srinivasan,R and Hamilton,M.A., 2007, Paleomagnetism and U-Pb geochronology of easterly trending dykes in the Dharwar craton, India: feldspar clouding,radiating dyke swarms and position of India at 2.37 Ga, Precambrian Res., Vol.155,pp.47-68.
- G. Parthasarathy, A.C. Kunwar, R.Srinivasan : 2006, Amygdaloidal minerals in Deccan Traps of Killari area, Mahrashtra India.: Their Geochemical implications. Geological Survey of India publication on Group Discussion on Deccan Volcanism. pp 29-36.
- L. B. Tiwari, C. J. Jahagirdar, V. D. Deshpande, R. Srinivasan and G. Parthasarathy, 2005, Weathering impact on the colour of building stones of the ‘Gateway of India’ monument, Environmental Geology, Vol.48, pp.788-794
- Ray,L., Senthil Kumar, P.,Reddy,G.K., Sukanta Roy,Rao,G.V., Srinivasan,R. and Rao,R.U.M., 2003, High mantle heat flow in the Precambrian granulite province : Evidence from south India, Jour.Geophys.Res., vol.108, (B2), 13p
- Rao, R.U.M.,Roy,Sukanta and Srinivasan,R., 2003, Heat flow researches in India: Results and perspectives, Memoir Geol.Soc.India, Vol.53, pp.347-351.
- Senthil Kumar, P., Basavalingu,B.. and Srinivasan,R., 2003, Origin of the Closepet Granite in the light of fabric, mineralogy and radioelemental composition, Memoir Geol.Soc.India, Vol.52, PP. 229-254.
- Roy Sukanta, Ray Labani, Kumar Senthil,P.,Reddy,G.K. and Srinivasan, R., 2003, Heat flow and heat production in the Precambrian gneiss-granulite province of southern India, Mem.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.52, pp. 179-192.
- Mukhopadhyay, D, Senthil Kumar,P. Srinivasan, R. and Bhattachrya,T., 2005, Nature of the Palaghat-Cauvery lineament in the region south of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu: Implications for terrane assembly in the south Indian granulite province. Mem.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.52, pp. 279- 295.
- G. Parthasarathy, B.M. Choudary, B. Sreedhar, A.C. Kunwar, and R. Srinivasan, 2003, Ferrous saponite from the Deccan Trap, India, and its application in adsorption and reduction of hexavalent chromium. American Mineralogist, 88 ,1983-1988.
- H.K. Gupta, R. Srinivasan, R.U.M.Rao, G.V.Rao, GK.Reddy, S.Roy, S.H. Jafri,A.M.Dayal, J. Zachariah, G.Parthasarathy, G.V.S.P.Rao, T.N. Gowd, S.V.Srirama Rao, K.K.Dwivedy, D.C.Banerjee, R.Mohanty, Y.R.Satyasaradhi, V.J.Katti, A.R.Prasad, G.G.K.Ramanujam,P.R.Reddy, M.Shukla. 2003, Borehole investigations in the surface rupture zone of the 1993 Latur SCR earthquake, Maharashtra, India: Overview of Results. Earth quakes studies in Peninsular India. Ed. HK Gupta and GD Gupta. Geological Society of India, Memoir 54, pp 1-22.
- Kumar, P. S., and Srinivasan, R., 2002, Fertility of Late Archaean basement granite in the vicinity of U-mineralized Neoproterozoic Bhima basin, peninsular India: Current Science, v. 82, p. 571-575.
- P.S. Kumar, G.Parthasarathy, S. D. Sharma, R. Srinivasan. , P. Krishnamurthy 2001, Mineralogical and Geochemical study on carbonate veins of the Salem-Attur Fault Zone, Southern India: evidence for Carbonatitic affinity. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. 58, 15-26
- G.Parthasarathy, A.C. Kunwar, and R.Srinivasan. 2001, Occurrence of moganite-rich chalcedony from the Deccan flood basalts, Killari, Maharashtra, India. European Journal Mineralogy. 13 , 127-134.
- Sreenivas,B., Roy, A.B. and Srinivasan,R., 2001, Geochemistry of sericite deposits at the base of the Proterozoic Aravalli Supergroup, Rajasthan, India: Evidence for metamorphosed and metasomatised Precambrian paleosol. Proc.Indian Acad. Sci., (Earth and Planetary Sci.), Vol.100, pp.39-61
- Gupta,H.K., Rao,R.U.M., Srinivasan,R., Rao, G.V., Dwivedy,K.K., Banerjee,D.C., Mohanty,R., and Satyasaradhi,Y.R., 2001, 1993 Latur Earthquake: Evidence in subsurface lava flows of the surface rupture zone for fault reactivation: In Research highlights in Earth System Science, DST spl.Vol.2 on Seismicity (Ed.O.P.Verma), Indian Geological Congress, pp.181-184.
- Mukhopadhyay,D., Srinivasan,R., Senthil Kumar,P., Bhattacharya,T and Sen Gupta,P., 2001, Archean – Neoproterozoic terrane boundary in the south Indian granulite belt in East Gondwana, Gondwana Res., Vol.4, pp.711-712.
- Rao,R.U.M.,Srinivasan,R., Sukanta Roy, Reddy,G.K., Rao,G.V., Labani Ray and Senthil Kumar,P., 2001, Geothermal regime and radioelemental distribution in the southern granulite province, south India. Deep Continental Studies (DCS) in India, News letter, DST., Vol.11, (2), pp.7-10.
- Mukhopadhyay,D., Senthil Kumar,P., Srinivasan,R., Bhattacharya,T., and Sengupta,P., 2001, Tectonics of the eastern sector of the Palghat Cauvery lineament near Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, Deep Continental Studies (DCS) New Letter, DST., Vol.11(1), pp.9-13.
- Sreenivas,B., Das Sharma,S., Kumar,B., Patil,D.J., Roy,A.B and Srinivasan, R., 2001, Positive delta 13C excusrsion in carbonate and organic fractions from the Paleoproterozoic Aravalli Supergroup, Northwestern India, Precambrian Res., Vol.106, pp.277-290.
- Bhaskar Rao,Y.J., Anil Kumar, Vrevsky,A.B., Srinivasan,R. and Anantha Iyer,G.V., 2000, Sm-Nd ages of two meta-anorthosite complexes around Holenarasipur : Constraints on antiquity of Archean crustal rocks of the Dharwar craton, Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planetary Sci.), Vol.109, pp.57-65.
- Srinivasan,R., 2000, Precambrian Stratigraphy in “ Significant contributions to Geoscience Research in India during the Nineties- A Status Report”, (Ed. M.S. Srinivasan), INSA, New Delhi, pp. 105-126.
- Rao,R.U.M., Srinivasan,R., Reddy,G.K., Sukanta Roy., Labani Ray and Senthil Kumar,P., 1999, Geothermal regime and radioelemental distribution in southern granulite province, Deep Continental Studies - DST News Letter, pp.14-15.
- Zachariah,J.K., Bhaskar Rao,Y.J., Srinivasan,R. and Gopalan,K., 1999, Pb, Sr, Nd isotope systematics of uranium mineralized stromatolitic dolomites from the Proterozoic Cuddapah Supergroup, south India: constraints on age and Provenance, Chem.Geol., Vol.162, pp.49-64.
- Gupta, H.K., Rao, R.U.M., Srinivasan,R., Rao,G.V., Reddy,G.K., Dwivedy,K.K., Banerjee,D.C., Mohanty,R. and Sathyasaradhi, Y.R., 1999, Anatomy of surface rupture zones of two stable continental region earthquakes, 1967 Koyna and 1993 Latur, India, Geophys.Res.Lett., 1985-1988.
- Sambasiva Rao, V.V., Sreenivas,B., Balaram,V., Govil,P.K., and Srinivasan,R., 1999, The nature of Archean upper crust as revealed by the geochemistry of the Proterozoic shales of the Kaladgi basin, Karnataka, southern India, Precambrian Res., Vol.98, pp.53-65.
- Sreenivas,B., Srinivasan,R and Roy,A.B., 1999, Geochemical changes across the Archean-Proterozoic boundary- a study from the Udaipur area of Aravalli Mountain Belt, Rajasthan, India, in (Kataria,P. Ed.), Geology of Rajasthan- Status and Perspectives, Geology Department, MSU University, Udaipur, pp.57-86.
- G. Parthasarathy, V. Balaram and R. Srinivasan. 1999. Characterization of green garnets from an Archean calc-silicate rock, Bandihalli, Karnataka, India: Evidence for a continous solid-solution between uvarovite and grandite. J. Asian Earth Sciences 17, 345-352.
- G. Parthasarathy, R. Srinivasan, M. Vairamani, K. Ravikumar and A.C. Kunwar 1998, Occurrence of natural fullerenes in low-grade metamorphosed Proterozoic shungite from Karelia, Russia. Geochim. Cosmochim.Acta. 62, 3541-3544.
- Srinivasan,R., Jaffri, S.H., Rao,G.V. and Reddy, G.K., 1998, Phreatomagmatic eruptive centers from the Deccan Trap Province, Jabalpur, Central India, Curr. Sci., 74, 787-790.
- Naha,K., Srinivasan,R., and Deb. D.K., 1997, Structural geometry of the early Precambrian terrane south of Coimbatore in the “Palghat Gap”, southern India, Proc.Indian Acad. Sci ., (Earth and Planet Sci.), Vol.106, pp.237-247.
- Srinivasan,R., Pantulu,G.V.C., and Gopalan, K., 1997, Rare earth element geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of the Archean stromatolitic cherts of the Dharwar craton, south India., Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planetary Sci.), Vol.106, pp., 369-377.
- Hanuma Prasad,M., Krishna Rao,B., Vasudev,V.N. and Srinivasan,R. and Balaram,V., 1997, Geochemistry of bimodal volcanic rocks of the Sandur supracrustal belt, Dharwar craton, southern India, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.49, pp.307-322.
- Naha,K., Srinivasan,R., and Mukhopadhyay,D., 1996, Structural studies and their bearing on the early Precambrian history of the Dharwar tectonic province, southern India, Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planet Sci.), Vol.105, pp. 379-412.
- Naha, K. and Srinivasan,R., 1996, Nature of the Moyar-Bhavani shear zone, with a note on its implication on the tectonics of the southern Indian shield., Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planet.Sci.), Vol.105,pp. 173-189.
- Srinivasan,R. and Naha,K., 1996, Apropos of the Sargur Group in the early Precambrian Dharwar tectonic province, southern India, In A.K.Saha (Ed)., Recent Researches in Geology and Geophysics of the Precambrians, Recent Researches in Geology, Vol.16, pp. 43-48.
- Naha,K., Rai Chaudhuri,A., Ranjan,V. And Srinivasan,R., 1995, Superposed folding in the Honakere arm of the Chitradurga-Karighatta belt in the Dharwar tectonic province, southern India and its bearing on the Dharwar-Sargur relation. Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planet.Sci.), Vol.104., pp.327-348.
- Das Sharma,S., Patil., D.J., Srinivasan,R. and Gopalan,K., 1994, Very high δ18O enrichment in the Archean chert of south India: implications for Archean ocean temperature, Terra Nova, Vol.6, pp. 385-390.
- Das Sharma,S., Srinivasan,R., Ahmad,S.M., and Patil,D.J., 1994, Carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of the regionally metamorphosed Archean carbonate rocks of the Dharwar craton- Apreliminary appraisal, Curr.Sci., Vol.66, pp.857-860.
- Sreenivas,B. and Srinivasan,R., 1994, Identification of paleosols in the Precambrian metapelitic assemblages of Peninsular India- a major element geochemical approach,
Curr.Sci., Vol.67, pp. 89-94.
- Sreenivas,B., Balaram,V., and Srinivasan,R., 1994, Trace and rare earth element contamination during routine preparation of sample powders for geochemical studies,
Indian Jour.Geol., Vol.66, pp.296-304.
- Naha,K., Srinivasan,R., Gopalan,K., Pantulu,G.V.C., Subba Rao, M.V., Vrevsky,A.B., and Bogomolov,Ye.S., 1993, The nature of the basement in the Archean Dharwar craton of southern India and the age of the Peninsular Gneiss, Proc.Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth and Planet.Sci.),Vol.102, pp.1-19.
- Srinivasan,R., Naha,K., Bhaskar Rao,Y.J., Vrevsky, A.B., Rybakov,S.I., Golubev,A.I., and Efimov,M., 1993, Middle to Late Archean geology of the Eastern Baltic shield, with a note on its similarity and contrast with the Archean of southern India. Proc.Indian Acad.of Sci., (Earth and Planet.Sci.), Vol.102, pp. 567-585.
- Srinivasan,R. and Naha,K., 1993, Archean sedimentation in the Dharwarcraton, southern India, Proc.National Acad. Sci.India, Vol.63, pp.1-13.
- Naha, K., Srinivasan, R., and Jayaram, S., 1993, Structural relations of charnockites of the Archean Dharwar craton, southern India, Jour.Metamorphic Geology, Vol.11, pp. 889-895.
- Srinivasan, R., Naha, K., Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Vrevsky, A.B., Rybakov,S.I., Golubev,A.I., 1992, Archean greenstone belts of the Eastern Baltic and the southern Indian shields- a comparative study, Curr.Sci., Vol.62, pp.741-744.
- Srinivasan,R., Suubba Rao,D.V., Pantulu,G.V.C., Sivaraman,T.V., Balaram,V., and Gopalan, K., 1992, Negative europium anomalies and reset Rb-Sr ages of Archean detrital metasedimentary rocks of the low-grade supracrustal belts of the Dharwar craton, south India, in Proceedings of the International Symposium, Perth Australia, Eds. Glover, J.E., and Ho, S.E., The Archean- Terrains, Processes and Metallogeny, The University of Western Australia, Publ.22, pp.295-304.
- Anil Kumar, Srinivasan,R., Gopalan,K. And Patil, D.J., 1992, A reappraisal of an Archean carbonatite of the Nellore schist belt, South India, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.40, pp.169-174.
- Naha, K., Srinivasan,R., and Jayaram,S., 1991, Sedimentational, structural and migmatitic history of the Archean Dharwar tectonic province, southern India, Proc. Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planet.Sci.), Vol.100, pp.399-412.
- Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Naha,K., Srinivasan,R. and Gopalan, K., 1991, Geology,geochemistry and geochronology of the Archean Peninsular Gneiss around Gorur, Hassan District., Karnataka, Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., (Earth and Planet.Sci.), Vol.100, pp.399-412.
- Naha, K., Srinivasan, R. and Jayaram, S., 1990, Structural evolution of Peninsular Gneiss – an early Precambrian migmatitic complex from southern India, Geologische Rundschau, Band 79, pp.99-109.
- Venkatachala,B.S., Shukla,M., Sharma,M., Naqvi, S.M., Srinivasan,R. and Uday Raj, B., 1990, Archean microbiota from the Donimali Formation, Dharwar Supergroup, India, Precambrian.Res., Vol.47, pp.27-34.
- Srinivasan, R., Naqvi, S.M. and Vasantha Kumar, B., 1990, Archean shelf facies and stromatolite proliferation in the Dharwar Supergroup, North Kanara District, Karnataka, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.35, pp.202-212.
- Srinivasan,R. and Naqvi, S.M., 1990, Some distinctive trends in the evolution of the Early Precambrian (Archean) Dharwar craton, In “Precambrian Continental Crust and its Economic resources” , Elsevier, pp. 245-266.
- Srinivasan,R., Shukla, M., Naqvi, S.M., Yadav, V.K., Venkatachala, B.S., Uday Raj, B., and Subba Rao, D.V., 1989, Archean stromatolites from the Chitradurga schist belt, Dharwar craton, south India, Precambrian Res., Vol.43, pp. 239-250.
- Srinivasan, R., Naqvi, S.M., Uday Raj, B., Subba Rao, D.V., Balaram, V., and Gnaneswara rao, T., 1989, Geochemistry of the Archean greywackes from the northern part of the Chitradurga schist belt, Dharwar craton, south India – Evidence for granitoid upper crust in the Archean, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, pp. 505-516.
- Venkatachala, B.S., Naqvi, S.M., Chandra, M.S., Shukla, M., Srinivasan, R., Kumar,B., Mathur, R., Blaram, V., Natarajan, R., Sharma, M., Uday Raj, B., Subba Rao, D.V., Manikyamba, C., Krishna Murthy, B.S.S., and Bansal, R., 1989, Paleobiology and geochemistry of Precambrian stromatolites and associated sedimentary rocks from the Dharwar craton: Constraints on Archean biogenic processes, In Proc. Indo-Soviet Symposium on Stromatolites and Stromatolitic Deposits, Himalayan Geology, Vol.13, pp.1-20.
- Naha, K. and Srinivasan, R., 1988, Structure of the Kandavadi fold and its bearing on the basement problem in the Archean Dharwar craton, Indian J.Earth Sci., Vol.15, pp.290-305.
- Srinivasan,R., 1988, Present status of the Sargur Group of the Archean Dharwar craton, south India, Indian Jour.Geol., Vol.60, pp.57-62.
- Sofonov, Yu.G., Genkin, A.D., Vasudev, V.N., Krishna Rao, B., and Srinivasan, R., 1988, Problems of ore gold potential of the Karnataka craton, in Kolar Schist belt Monograph, Nauka USSR, pp. 27-31 (in Russian)
- Safonov, Yu.G., Vasudev, V.N. and Srinivasan, R., 1988, The main features of the Karnata Craton geology in Kolar schist belt, Monograph, Nauka USSR, pp. 206-216 (in Russian).
- Venkatachala, B.S., Sharma,M., Srinivasan,R., Shukla, M., and Naqvi, S.M., 1986, Bacteria from the Archean banded iron formation of Kudremukh region, Dharwar craton, south India, The Paleobotanist, Vol.35, pp.200-203.
- Naha, K., Srinivasan,R. and Naqvi, S.M., 1986, Structural unity in the Precambrian Dharwar tectonic province, Jour.Geol.Min.Met.Soc.India, Vol.58, pp.219-243.
- Srinivasan, R., and Ojakangas, R.W., 1986, Sedimentology of quartz pebble conglomerates and quartzites of the Bababudan Group, Dharwar craton, south India, Jour.Geol., Vol.94, pp. 199-214.
- Pichauthu, C.S. and Srinivasan, R., 1984, The Dharwar Craton, Perspective Report Series, Indian Natl. Sci.Academy, No.7, pp.1-34.
- Pichamuthu, C.S. and Srinivasan, R., 1983, A billion year history of the Dharwar craton, Geol.Soc.India Memoir, No.4, pp. 226-235.
- Krishna Rao, B., Srinivasan, R., Sreenivas, B.L. and Ramachandra, B.L., 1982, Mode of occurrence and origin of the manganese ores of Shimoga District, Karnataka, Jour.Geol.Soc. India, Vol.23, pp. 226-235.
- Pichamuthu, C.S., Srinivasan,R., Fareeduddin and Bhaskar, A.A., 1981, Archean crustal thickness of greenstone-granite belts of south India, Proc.Indian Acad.Sci., Earth and Planet Sci., Vol.90, pp. 217-226.
- Fareedundin, Bhaskar,A.A. and Srinivasan,R., 1981, Dacite pebbles from the Hoskere-Gurusiddapura Conglomerate, Dharwar Supergroup, Karnataka, Curr.Sci., Vol.50, pp.365-367.
- Vasudev,V.N. and Srinivasan, R., 1979, Vanadium bearing titaniferous magnetite deposits of Karnataka, India, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.20, pp.170-178.
- Sambe Gowda, S. and Srinivasan,R., 1979, History of the concepts of Precambrian Geology as applied to Mysore area of India, in (Eds., Kupsch W.D. and Sarjeant, W.A.S.,) History of concepts of Precambrian Geology , Geol.Assoc.Canada, Spl.Paper,19, pp.81-204.
- Vasudev,V.N. and Srinivasan,R., 1978, Pillow breccias from the Precambrian metabasalts of the Chitradurga greenstone belt, Karnataka, Curr.Sci., Vol.47, pp. 903-904.
- Srinivasan, R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1977, Some new geological features from the LANDSAT imagery of Karnataka, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.18, pp.589-597.
- Srinivasan,R., Sreenivas,B.L. and Krishna Rao, B., 1976, Evolution of Peninsular Gneiss: Restraints, Reasons and Reflections, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.17, pp. 94-96.
- Srinivasan,R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1975, A reappraisal of some aspects of the geology of Dharwars of Mysore State, India. Misc.Publ.Geol.Surv.India, No.23, Pt.1, pp.49-70.
- Srinivasan,R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1975, Pre-Dharwar rock formations of Karnataka, Indian Mineralogist, Vol.16, pp. 76-88.
- Srinivasan,R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1975, Komatiite dykes from Dodkanya, Mysore District, Karnataka State, India, Jour.Geol.Soc.India,Vol.16, pp.508-512.
- Sreenivas, B.L. and Srinivasan,R., 1974, Geochemistry of the granite-greenstone terrain of south India, J.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.15, pp.390-406.
- Srinivasan,R., and Sreenivas, B.L., 1974, Fracture studies and their significance for ground water development in the hard rock terrain of Karnataka. Proc.Seminar on Water well Drilling in Hard-Rock areas of India, Geol.Soc.India, pp.195-204.
- Srinivasan,R. and Tareen, J.A.K., 1972, Andalusite from Hospet area, Sandur schist belt. Mysore State, Indian Mineralogist, Vol.13, pp.42-45.
- Srinivasan,R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1972, Dharwar Stratigraphy, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.13, pp.75-85.
- Srinivasan, R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1971, Flood basalts from the Dharwars of Mysore, Bull.Volcanologique, Tome 35, pp.824-840.
- Srinivasan,R. and Sreenivas, B.L., 1969, Migmatization studies in the Pensinsular Gneiss of Bangalore, Indian Mineralogist, Vol.10, pp.282-288.
- Srinivasan,R and Sreenivas, B.L., 1969, Relict plagioclases from the Kolar Gold Field amphibolites, Bull.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.6, pp.98-102.
- Srinivasan, R and Sreenivas, B.L., 1968, Sedimentation and tectonics in Dharwar (Archean) of Mysore State, India, Indian Mineralogist, Vol.9, pp.47-58.
- Sreenivas, B.L. and Srinivasan, R., 1968 , Dharwar conglomerates of Mysore – a restudy, Jour.Geol.Soc.India, Vol.9, pp.197-205.
- Sreenivas, B.L. and Srinivasan, R., 1968, Tectonic significance of pillow lavas, Mysore, India, Bull. Geol.Soc.India, Vol.5, pp.56-58.
Working on finding out reasons for Archean glaciation in India
Working on stable isotope and REE geochemistry of auriferous quartz carbonate veins. Have worked on this aspect on two deposits ( Ajjanhalli and G.R. Halli) in Karnataka so far which show that gold bearing hydrothermal solutions were derived from the mantle. Investigations on other gold prospects in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are in progress.
Have acquired new SHRIMP Zircon U-Pb ages on the felsic volcanics of the Dharwar Supergroup. The data suggest support the views of myself and late Prof. Naha that the Eastern and western Dharwar craton have correlatable rocks and evolved as a single terrane. They are not two terranes sutured as postulated by some other workers.
Have begun detailed isotopic investigation on iron, manganese and limestone deposits of the Dharwar craton in collaboration with Pondicherry university to examine evidences of Archean life/biological activity and its role in giving rise to large iron and manganese deposits in the Archean. It was generally believed that Archaean iron formations are hydrothermal. Studies in progress show that there are both hydrothermal and hydrogenous. Their precipitation is mediate by bacterial photosynthesis.
Other academic activities :
Served as Chief Editor, Current Science till January 2018 and continuing to serve as Section Editor- Earth System Science
Lecturing in different institutions ( Geology Department ,Pondicherry University, Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute Science, Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Geology, Mysore University, Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Indian school of Mines , Dhanbad,
And Mangalore University.
Providing field training to Summer Fellows of the three Academy of Science.
Academic and Professional standing
- Fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences (F.A.Sc.), Elected 1992.
- Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy ( F.N.A.), Elected 1996.
- Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences of India, (F.N.A.Sc.,), Elected 1998.
- Fellow of the Geological Society of India.
- Chief Editor, Current Science (till Jan 2018)
- Editor, earth System Sciences in Current Science (at present)
- Earlier Fellow Mineralogical Society of India.
- Earlier Member, International Association of Sedimentologists.
- Awardee The Geological Society of India M.Ramakrishnan Gold Medal for significant contribution to Precambrian Geology of India., 2017
- Member, national Geoscience Awards Committee 2017-2019
SIGNIFICANT RESULTS FROM RESEARCH ON ARCHAEAN ROCKS OF THE DHARWAR CRATON
Srinivasan has worked on various aspects of the Archean rock formations of the Dharwar craton to understand the evolution of the Archaean crust as evidenced here. He has worked on sedimentation, paleoenvironment and climate, paleobiology, volcanism, structural history, metamorphism, geochemistry and geochronology of the supracrustal rocks of the schist belts and gneisses of the Dharwar craton. Important results under each of the above heads are as follows :
Sedimentation, paleoenvironment and paleoclimate:
He was one of the earliest to distinguish the platform, shelf and deep water environments of sedimentation in the Dharwar craton and related sedimentation and tectonics. He working with Prof. Ojakangas showed that the quartz pebble conglomerates and quartzites of the Bababudan Group were deposited in braided fluvial plains and these are interbedded with subaerial basaltic volcanic rocks. Such sedimentary association was rarely ever reported in the Archaean greenstone belts at the time when they were reported. Similar sequence was discovered later in the Uchi greenstone belt of Canada by Phil Thurston. On the basis of occurrence detrital pyrite and uraninite in the quartz pebble conglomerates of the Bababudan sequence, he suggested that
during the early stages of sedimentation of the Dharwar Sequence, the atmosphere was oxygen deficient. In a detailed restudy of the conglomerates at the base of the Chitradurga Group, in association with Prof. Ojakangas, Srikantia and Hegde, Srinivasan has presented confirmatory evidences for the glaciomarine origin of these conglomerates which are characterized by diamictite-drop stone association. Geochronological studies indicate that this glaciation is 2.7 Ga old and represents second oldest glaciation event in the Archaean earth history. He has shown that during the amelioration from this glacial episode, carbonate rocks were deposited, in which there are well - developed stromatolites built by cyanobacterial algae. C and O isotopic studies of these carbonate rocks showed that they were deposited in a marine environment. Some of them still retain C and O isotopic characteritics of cap carbonate rocks. Stromatolite occurrences have been helpful in defining the palaeo seacoast and shallow shelf region in the Archean greenstone belts. Stromatolite proliferation in the Dharwar seas was probably facilitated by normal low temperature conditions as revealed by some C and O isotopic study on co-existing cherts and carbonates. Srinivasan and Ojakangas observed graded bedding and Bouma cycles in the greywackes of the Chitradurga Group indicating deposition under the influence of turbidity currents. Petrographic studies indicated that they consist of continent derived detritus as well as volcanic rock fragments as can be expected in a back arc basin. Geochemical studies of greywackes led to the evidence that the provenance had witnessed upper granodioritic crustal differentiation prior to greywacke sedimentation and that chemical weathering was very sudued in the provenance.
In association with scientists of BSIP and his colleagues at NGRI, Srinivasan for first time discovered by scanning electron microcopy the occurrence of coccoid as well rod shaped bacteria in the banded iron formations Kudremukh area of Bababudan Group. He provided the evidences for syngenetic nature of the cyanobacterial fossil filaments found in the banded iron formation of Sandur belt. Srinivasan also worked on the C isotopic composition of graphites which showed that the graphite was formed from organic carbon. Extremely low δ C13 values in Ganacharpur graphites of Kolar schist belt suggested that there was intervention of metanogenic bacteria in the fractionation of carbon during the Archean.
Srinivasan was one of the earliest to suggest subaerial flood basalt volcanism for the volcanic rocks of the Bababudan Group. He observed these rocks are tholeiitic in composition. Their low K tholeiitic composition was similar to volcanics in back arc basins. By contrast, in the Chitradurga Group, he observed that submarine volcanism was dominant. He described occurrence of dacites in the volcanic assemblage. On the basis of dominanace of bimodal volcanic association in the Bababudan, Dharwar-Shimoga and Chitradurga belts, and occurrence calc-alkaline volcanic assemblages in the schist belts in the eastern part of the Dharwar craton, Srinivasan has proposed that the Dharwar schist belts in the western part evolved in back arc foreland basins, while the eastern belts evolved in magmatic arc environment.
Structural history of the Dharwar craton
Srinivasan with late Prof. Naha and Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay has carried out structural studies in the Dharwar craton. These studies have shown structural unity ( in terms of style, sequence and orientation ) throughout the Dharwar craton. The structural history in the western and eastern Dharwar schist belts, in the so called Dharwar and Sargur Group of rocks, in the Peninsular Gneiss and in the charnockites have been shown to be similar. This structural unity has been interpreted to indicate that : (1) the unconformity at the base of the Bababudan Group is not an angular unconformity; (2) the Peninsular Gneiss is a complex consisting of some basement rocks as well as syntectonic gneisses that evolved during the deformation of Dharwar and Sargur Supracrustal rocks; (3) Sargur Group consists of torn remnants of rocks from the lower sections of the Dharwar schist belts as well as some older rocks with pre-Dharwar fabric; (4) although traversed by crustal scale faults, the structural unity suggests that the Archean crust extended at least up to the Palghat –Cauvery lineament; (5) Nilgiri block is a tectonic horst of Archean granulites, not a separate cratonic block attached to the Dharwar craton. (6) With Prof. Mukhopadhyay , he observed a distinct structural break between the granulite terrain to the north and gneiss-migmatite terrain to the south of the Palaghat-Cauvery lineament in the Namakkal area of Tamil Nadu.
- Srinivasan for the first time proposed the idea of high temperature - low pressure metamorphic belt in the Dharwar craton based on discovery of andalusite in the Sandur schist belt and occurrence of andalusite as well as cordierite –hypersthene ± sillimanite assemblage along the border of the Closepet Granite. This report was fore- runner for the concept of low- and intermediate pressure metamorphic belts in the Dharwar craton proposed by Rollinson, Windley and Ramakrishnan. Parallel studies by Srinivasan as well Ramaksrishnan have led to the concept of occurrence paired metamorphic belts in the Archaean Dharwar craton, a concept that goes well with plate tectonics in convergent tectonic settings.
- A detailed study of green garnets from Bandihalli region was undertaken by Srinivasan along with Dr. Parthasarathy and they found that these are not green garnets derived from kimberlite, but were normal grossularite as seen in calc-silicate assemblages. This study also provided for the first time evidence for continuous solid solution between uvarovite and grandite which was not known earlier.
- Detailed investigations of Shungites from Precambrian Kondapoga area in Russia in association with Dr. Parthasarathy led to the discovery first report of natural fullerene from carbonaceous rocks. The fullerenes were formed under normal greenschist facies of metamorphism.
- Srinivasan and Naha recognized two generations of orthopyroxenes developed during two phases of folding in the charnockites of southern Karnataka. This led to the suggestion that granulites were formed during two episodes, not one as was generally believed.
Srinivasan studied Geochemistry of volcanic rocks, the quartzites, greywakes, limestones and cherts. The study on volcanic rocks indicated that Bababudan Group volcanics are essentially bimodal, where as in the Chitradurga Group there are volcanic rocks of calc-alkaline series. Calc -alkaline volcanic rocks are more abundant in the schist belts of the eastern Dharwar craton. The REE geochemistry quartzites and greywackes provided evidence for upper granodioritic crustal differentiation prior to the deposition of the Dharwar Supergroup sediments. The C and isotopic geochemistry of carbonate rocks indicated that they are marine deposits, some have cap dolomite characters , C and O isotopic study of coexisting cherts and carbonates with Dr. Das Sharma indicated deposition of carbonates in sea waters with normal temperatures of 20o or lower and that the Archaean sea water was not scalding as believed by some other workers. At present he is working in collaboration with Prof. Balakrishnan at Pondicherry University on the Sr and Nd isotopic systematics in carbonate rocks as well as in iron formation. Initial results show that iron formations are composed of both hydrothermal as well as hydrogenous types, not just hydrothermal as has been reported in recent years by various workers.
Srinivasan while supervising the Ph.D. work of Dr. Senthi Kumar studied the heat generation characteritics of the various rock formations of the Dharwar craton using U,Th and K abundances in rocks . This craton wide study showed that the Archean ganulite terrain is least heat producing and the tonalitic gneisses dominant in the western part of the Dharwar craton generate much less heat compared the granodiritic crust of the eastern Dharwar craton. He used the crustal heat production data and estimated the residual mantle heat flow in the Dharwar craton and showed that it is anomalously high in the northerm granulite terrain (north of P-C lineament) where it is 26-29mW m-2. By contrast it is low in the Dharwar granite greenstone terrane 12-19 mW- just as in other Archeangranite-greenstone provinces. Mantle metamoatism in the northern granulite terrane has been indicated.
Srinivasan carried out geochronological studies of the gneisses by Rb-Sr and Zircon Pb-Pb isotopic methods ( with Drs. Gopalan and Bhaskar Rao, and Russian Scientists), anorthosites (with Gopalan and Bhaskar Rao), of carbonate rocks ( with Gopalan , Zacharia and Sarangi), cherts ( with Gopalan, Sivaraman and Pantulu), of greywackes ( with Gopalan). These studies showed
- age of the Peninsular gneiss falls into three groups, 3.3 Ga, 3Ga and 2.6 to 2.5 Ga and therefore the Peninsular Gneiss is a complex of gneisses of several generations. Geochronological studies supported the syntectonic evolution of Peninsular Gneiss which had been proposed on the basis of structural studies that had been carried out earlier with Prof. Naha and and Prof. Mukhopadhyay.
- That the Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages are reset during metamorphism was demonstrated by a study of anorthosites from Holenarasipur. Where the N-S foliation related to
later folding is superimposed on the anorthosites, they yield an age of 2.55-2.6Ga, where this fabric is absent the original age of emplacement of 2.9 Ga is preserved.
- Pb-Pb dating of marbles of Sargur Group showed that they were metamorphosed Ca 2.5Ga just as the marbles in the Dharwar Supergroup. No evidence of metamorphism older than 3 Ga could be recognised
- For the first time Rb-Sr dating of cherts from the Vanivilas carbonate sequence was attempted and it was shown that they preserve the same ~2.5 Ga metamorphic age as observed in the associated volcanics.
- In a first attempt to date greywackes directly, a Rb-Sr isochron was generated from layers of single Bouma bed which also showed that the Rb-Sr ages are same as those of the associated volcanics.
- With Dr. Goswami and Dr. Maibam Bidyananda he carried out Pb-Pb isotopic geochronology of the gneisses and supracrustal enclaves in them, both from the eastern and western part of the Dharwar craton. The study showed that the antiquity of the Eastern and western parts of the Dharwar craton is one and the same and the Western Dharwar craton is not older as had been proposed some other workers. Only there are more ~ 2.55 Ga granitic intrusions in the eastern part.
- At present he is engaged in SHRIMP U-Pb geochronological studies with Dr. Sushanta Sarangi of ISM, Dhanbad, Dr. Maibam Bidyananada of Manipur University and Prof. Alan Nutaman of Australia.
- U-Pb and Lu-Hf systematics of zircons show that the Sargur Group ( which is believed to be oldest rock sequence in south India (older than 3 Ga) is actually just as old as the 2.6 to 2.9 Ga Dharwar sequence. (Work with Maibam Bidyananda and Alex Gerdes, 2017)
With Dr. Sarang, ISM, Dhanbad,i and his research students, Srinivasan has been researching on the source of gold mineralizing fluids in the Dharwar craton. Carbon, oxygen and Sulphur isotopic studies have led to proposition that gold deposits were formed from juvenile fluids, rather than from metamorphic hydrothermal solutions.
RESEARCHES ON OTHER ROCK FORMATIONS
Researches on Aravalli Group
A comparative study of geochemistry of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks was undertaken while supervising the Ph.D work of Dr. B. Sreenivas. In this study it was shown that there is no significant change in the abundance of transitional group elements across the Archean-
Proterozoic boundary. There is an alumina enriched paleosol at the base of Arvalli Supergroup, which indicates weathering under reducing conditions prior to the deposition of Aravalli Supergroup. The study of carbonates from Ghasiar area brought out the first evidence heavy δ 13C excursion in the carbonates immediately overlying the Jhamarkotra stromatolitic dolomite horizon.
Researches on Cuddapah
Pb-Pb isotopic dating of Vempalli domites was reported at 1756±29Ma ( With Zacharia, Gopalan and Bhaskar Rao)
Research on Kaladgi
Supervising post- doctoral research work of Dr. Sambasiva Rao, detailed geochemical study of shales from different stratigraphic horizons of the Kaladgi Supergroup was undertaken. It was found that the lower Kaladgi shales are richer in transition group elements and depleted in Zr, while the upper shales are enriched in Zr and depleted in Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr and Ni. The stripping of the Dharwar supracrustal cover and exposure of the basement granitoids could be demonstrated through this study.
Researches on Deccan Trap
Srinivasan discovered new phreatomagmatic eruptive centres southeast of Jabalpur. In a detailed study of the minerals present in the amygdales of Deccan traps, with Dr. Parthasarathy, he found saponite clay which was capable of removing hexavalent chromium from polluted waters. He also found a new phase of Si – moganite in the amygdales.
IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTIONS FOR THE ARCHEAN REGION OF KARNATAKA AS A GEOLOGICAL CONSULTANT
Srinivasan was a geological consultant also. Some important investigations carried out during that period are given below.
Srinivasan along with Dr. B.L. Sreenivas interpreted the satellite imagery of the Dharwar craton and produced the first lineament map of Karnataka. This map was used to explore for ground water in difficult hard rock areas of Karnataka under the Ganga Kalyana scheme of the Government of Karnataka and many successful bore wells were got drilled on productive lineaments. Significant among them are the wells near Chiknaikanhalli and Gauribidanur which supported water supply for a while.
Combining the tracing of lineaments from LANDSAT imagery, geological mapping on large scale and geophysical studies (electrical resistivity), he identified weak zones along tunnel alignments of irrigation tunnels ( Bagur-Navile, Arkalgud, Kadabgatti etc) which saved heavy costs on drilling and provided useful guidelines for tunneling.
Srinivasan proved several million cubic metres of puddle clay and filter material through soil mechanics studies in collaboration with Build Met Pvt.Ltd for the construction of the Lakya Dam (tailing dam) of the Kudremukh iron ore project.
From a detailed study of Atterberg limits and green strength of the clays, Srinivasan showed the feasibility of use of clays from the upper layers in Bageshpur area of Hassan for making stoneware pipes. A factory based on this was set up by Mysore Minerals Ltd., which ran for more than a decade.
Srinivasan demarcated abrasive grade bauxites amidst metallurgical grade bauxites from Baindur plateau, Karnataka in a study for Carborundum Universal Ltd.
He along with Dr. B.L. Sreenivas and Mr. R.H. Sowkar (then with the Mysore Minerals Ltd., ) estimated the manganese resources that would get submerged by the Supa Reservoir of the Kali Nadi hydroelectric Project of Karnataka. The report formed the basis for marketing of manganese ore by Mysore Minerals Ltd. to M/S Marubeni Corporation, Japan.
As a consultant to Geomysore India Pvt.Ltd, he wrote more than 100 exploration reports along with Dr. V.N. Vasudev on gold exploration in Karnataka and Andhra, Pb-Zn in Maharashtra, Gold and nickel in Madhya Pradesh. These preliminary exploration reports have led to maturation of projects for obtaining mining licenses for gold so far in Ganajur in Karnataka and Jonnagiri in Andhra Pradesh.