M.Tech, 1979, Applied Geology, IIT-Roorkee, India.
M.S. 1987,Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Ph.D, 1995, Geology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur, India.
Snow and glacier investigations using remote sensing methods
Glacier mass balance modeling
Modeling influence of climate change on distribution of Himalayan snow and glacier extent
Snow and glacier melt runoff modeling
Scientific Contribution in Nutshell
The Himalayas have one of the largest concentrations of glaciers outside the Polar Regions. The retreat of the glaciers in the Himalayas is difficult to document because of rugged terrain and debris cover. Dr. Kulkarni developed a new method to identify glacial terminus using satellite data. This was used to estimate retreat of about 1868 Himalayan glaciers. This investigation provided, for the first time, information about fragmentation of glaciers, loss in glacial area and about the dramatic impact of climate change on Himalayan cryosphere. Dr. Kulkarni developed a model to estimate glacier mass balance by monitoring snow line on the glaciers. This has provided, for the first time mass balance of large number Himalayan glaciers, which was otherwise available for few glaciers only. This work has created national and international awareness about the impact of climate change on Himalayan glaciers. Dr. Kulkarni lead numerous expeditions to study of glaciers. Dr. Kulkarni has also developed a new algorithm to monitor seasonal snow cover and generated information about seasonal snow cover for the Himalayan region. This investigation has shown that seasonal snow cover is melting in middle of winter, and hence influencing the stream runoff. This is an important fingerprint for global warming. Dr. Kulkarni developed for the first time in India a snow and glacier melt runoff model to assess hydropower potential of small Himalayan streams. This model has first time shown impact of climate change on hydropower generation, indicating reduction in power potential in all seasons. These contributions make Dr. Kulkarni one of the leading authorities in the world on Himalayan snow and ice cover.
- Tejal Shirsat, Anil V. Kulkarni, Andrea Momblanch, S. S. Randhawa, Ian P. Holman, 2021. Towards Climate-Smart development of Small Hydropower Projects in Himalaya: A multi-model assessment in Upper Beas Basin Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 34 (2021) 100797, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrh.2021.100797
- A.V. Kulkarni, IM Bahuguna, DP Dobhal, HS Negi, 2021, Himalayan Cryospheric Science: A paradigm shift by IRS 1/1D data, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 1-11.
- Akansha Patel, Ajanta Goswami, Jaydeo K. Dharpure, Meloth Thamban, Parmanand Sharma, Anil V. Kulkarni and Sunil Oulkar, 2021, Estimation of mass and energy balance of glaciers using a distributed energy balance model over the Chandra river basin (Western Himalaya), Hydrological Processes, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14058
- R Ramsankaran, PJ Navinkumar, A Dashora, AV Kulkarni, 2021, UAV-based survey of glaciers in Himalayas: Challenges and Recommendations, Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 1-11.
- Sivaranjani Sivalingam, Geetha Priya Murugesan, Krishnaveni Dhulipala, Anil Vishnupant Kulkarni, Suresh Devaraj. 2021. Temporal fluctuations of Siachen glacier velocity: a repeat pass SAR interferometry based approach, Geocarto International. https://doi.org /10.1080/10106049.2021.1899306.
- Remya S N, Anil V Kulkarni, Tajdarul Hassan Syed, Harish Chandra Nainwal, 2020. Glacier mass loss in the Alaknanda basin, Garhwal Himalaya on a decadal scale, Geocarto International, https://doi.org/10.1080/10106049.2020.1844309 .
- Gulab Singh, Bala Raju Nela, Debmita Bandyopadhyay, Shradha Mohanty, Anil V. Kulkarni, (2020). Discovering anomalous dynamics and disintegrating behaviour in glaciers of Chandra-Bhaga sub-basins, part of Western Himalaya using DInSAR, Remote Sensing of Environ. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.rse.2020.111885.
- Anil V. Kulkarni and Tejal Shirsat, 2020, Glacier Studies in India: Remote Sensing Applications and Challenge. Indian Journal of Geosciences 74(3), 307-314.
- Sattar, A., Goswami, A., Kulkarni, A.V. and Emmer, A. (2020), Lake Evolution, Hydrodynamic Outburst Flood Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis in the Central Himalaya: A Case Study, Water, 12, 237.
- Jaydeo K. Dharpure, Ajanta Goswami, Akansha Patel, Anil V. Kulkarni & Thamban Meloth (2020), Drought characterization using the Combined Terrestrial Evapotranspiration Index over the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins. Geocarto International, DOI: 10.1080/ 10106049.2020.1756462.
- Andrea Momblanch, Lindsay Beevers; Pradeep Srinivasalu; Anil Kulkarni and Ian P Holman (2020), Enhancing production and flow of freshwater ecosystem services in a managed Himalayan river system under uncertain future climate. Climatic Change, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-020-02795-2.
- Jaydeo K. Dharpure, Akansha Patel, Ajanta Goswami, Anil V. Kulkarni & Snehmani (2020) Spatiotemporal snow cover characterization and its linkage with climate change over the Chenab river basin, western Himalayas, GIScience & Remote Sensing, DOI: 10.1080/15481603.2020.1821150.
- VK Gaddam, AV Kulkarni, H Bjornsson, S Gullapalli, M Ballina, 2019, Applications of SPOT-& tri stereo imagery in deriving the surface topography and mass changes of glaciers in Indian Himalaya, Geocarto International, 1-21.
- Ashim Sattar, Ajanta Goswami and Anil V. Kulkarni, 2019, Application of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic modeling to study glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and its impact on a hydropower station in Central Himalaya, Natutal Hazards 97(2), 535-553.
- V Prasad, AV Kulkarni, S Pradeep, S Pratibha, SA Tawde, T Shirsat, 2019, Large losses in glacier area and water availability by the end of twenty-first century under high emission scenario, Satluj basin, Himalaya, Current Science 116(10), 1721-1732.
- Ashim Sattar, Ajanta Goswami and Anil V. Kulkarni, 2019, Hydrodynamic moraine-breach modeling and outbrust flood routing-A hazard assessment of the South Lhonak lake, sikkim, Science of the Total Environment, 668(2019), 362-378.
- SA Tawde, AV Kulkarni, G Bala, 2019, An assessment of climate change impacts on glacier mass balance and geometry in the Chandra Basin, Western Himalaya for the 21st century, Environmental Research Communications 1 (4), 041003.
- Momblanch, A., Papadimitriou, L., Jain, S.K., Kulkarni, A.V., Ojha, C.S.P., Adeloye, A.J and Holman, I.A (2019), Untangling the water-food-energy-environment nexus for global change adaptation in a complex Himalayan water resource system, Sci. of the Total Environ.pp-35-49
- Basnett, S., and Kulkarni, A.V. (2019), Snow Cover Changes Observed Over Sikkim Himalaya: Twelve Case Studies, Book chapter
- Bolch, T., Shea, J.M., Liu, S., Azam, M.F., Gao, Y., Gruber, S., Immerzeel., Kulkarni, A. V., Li, H., Tahir, A.A., Zhang, G. and Zhang, Y. (2019), Status and Change of the Cryosphere in the Extended Hindu Kush Himalaya Region: Mountains, Climate Change, Sustainability and People, Book chapter, In. The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Shirsat, T.(2019), Snow and Glacier hydrology, Book chapter in Water future of India, Pp.75-116
- Remya, S. N., Kulkarni, A. V, Pradeep, S., & Shrestha, D. G. (2019). Volume estimation of existing and potential glacier lakes, Sikkim Himalaya , India, Curr. Sci. https://doi.org/10.18520/cs/v116/i4/620-627
- US Maanya, A Tiwari, Anil V Kulkarni, ED Bhar, J Srinivasan, “Identification of potential glacial lake sites and mapping maximum extent of existing glacier lakes in Drang Drung and Samudra Tapu glaciers, Indian Himalaya", Current Science (00113891) 111 (3).
- VK Gaddam, Anil V Kulkarni, AK Gupta, “Estimation of glacial retreat and mass loss in Baspa basin, Western Himalaya", Spatial Information Research 24 (3), 257-266.
- Kamal K Singh, Ashavani Kumar, Anil V Kulkarni, Prem Datt, Sanjay K Dewali, Manoj Kumar, “Experimental investigation of dielectric properties of seasonal snow at field observatories in the northwest Himalaya”, Annals of Glaciology, DOI:10.3189/2016AoG71A011, 2015.
- Simone Schauwecker, Mario Rohrer, Christian Huggel, Anil V Kulkarni, AL Ramanathan, Nadine Salzmann, Markus Stoffel, Ben Brock, “Remotely sensed debris thickness mapping of Bara Shigri Glacier, Indian Himalaya”, Journal of Glaciology, Volume 61, Number 228, pp.675-688(14) September 2015.
- KK Singh, A Kumar, AV Kulkarni, P Datt, SK Dewali, V. Kumar, R. Chauhan, “Snow depth estimation in the Indian Himalaya using multi-channel passive microwave radiometer” Current Science, Volume 108, Number 5- March 2015.
- H.Frey, H.Machguth, M.Huss, C.Huggel, S.Bajracharya, T.Bolch, A. Kulkarni, A.Linsbauer, N.Salzmann, and M.Stoffel 2014, Estimating the volume of glaciers in the Himalayan–Karakoram region using different methods-doi:10.5194/tc-8-2313-2014,The Cryosphere, 8,2313-2333.
- Rajiv K Chaturvedi, Anil Kulkarni,Yogesh Karyakarte, Jaideep Joshi, G. Bala, 2014, Glacial Mass Balance Changes in the Karakoram and Himalaya based on CMIP5 Multi-Model Climate Projections, Climatic Change,DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-1052-5.
- Prateek Gantayat, Anil V. Kulkarni, and J.Srinivasan, 2014, Estimation of ice thickness using surface velocities and slope at The Gangotri glacier, India, Journal of Glaciology,60(220),277-282.
- Kulkarni A. V. and Yogesh Karyakarte, 2014, Observed changes in Himalaya glaciers, Current Science,106(2),237-244.
- Kulkarni A.V.2014,Glaciers as Source of Water: The Himalaya, Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility, Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Extra Series 41,Acta 20, Vatican City 2014,1-6.
- Adina E. Racoviteanu, Yves Arnaud, I.M.Baghuna, Samjwal R. Bajracharya, Etienne Berthier, Rakesh Bhambri, Tobias Bolch, Martin Byrne, Ravinder K. Chaujar, Regula Frauenfelder,Andreas Ka¨a¨b,Ulrich Kamp, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Anil V.Kulkarni,Gregory J.Leonard, Pradeep K.Mool,and I.Sossna,2014,Himalayan glaciers(India, Bhutan, Nepal):Satellite observations of thinning and retreat,in J.S.Kargel et al.(eds.),Global Land Ice Measurements from Space,-Springer Praxis Books, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-79818-7_24,!Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014, 549-582.
- Rupal M.Brahmbhatt, H.C.Nainwal and A.V.Kulkarni, 2014,Impact of accumulation area ratio on glacial change: A few examples of Jammu and Kashmir, Journal of Geomatics,Vol8 No.1,61-65.
- Smriti Basnett, Anil V. Kulkarni and Tobias Bolch, 2013 The influence of debris-cover and glacial lakes on the recession of glaciers in Sikkim Himalaya, India, Journal of Glaciology Vol. 59, No. 218, 1035-1046.
- Mario Rohrer, Nadine Salzmann, Markus Stoffel and Anil V. Kulkarni, 2013, Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas, Science of the Total Environment, 470, 1-11.
- Holger Frey, Horst Machguth, Christian Huggel, Samjwal Bajracharya, Tobias Bolch, Anil Kulkarni, Andreas Linsbauer, Markus Stoffel, Nadine Salzmann, 2013, Ice volumes in the Himalayas and Karakoram: evaluating different, assessment methods, Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, pp 11226.
- A.V. Kulkarni, G. Vinay Kumar, H. S. Negi, J. Srinivasan, and S. K. Satheesh, 2013, The effect of black carbon on reflectance of snow in the accumulation area of glaciers in the Baspa basin, Himachal Pradesh, India, The Cryosphere Discussions, Vol 7, issue 2, pp, 1359-1382.
- H. Frey, H. Machguth, M. Huss, C. Huggel, S. Bajracharya, T. Bolch, A. Kulkarni, A. Linsbauer, N. Salzmann, and M. Stoffel, 2013, Ice volume estimates for the Himalaya-Karakoram region: evaluating different methods, The Cryosphere Discussions 7, 4813-4854.
- S. K. Singh, B. K. Bhattacharya and A. V. Kulkarni, 2013, Cross calibration of INSAT 3A CCD channel radiances with IRS P6 AWiFS sensor, Journal of Earth System Science 122 (4), 957-966
- K. K. Singh, H. S. Negi, A. Ganju, A. V. Kulkarni, A. Kumar, V. D. Mishra and S. Kumar, 2013, Crevasses detection in Himalayan glaciers using Ground Penetrating Radar, Current Science 105 (09), 1288-1295.
- A. K. Sharma, S. K. Singh, A. V. Kulkarni and Ajai, 2013, Glacier inventory in Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra basins of the Himalaya, National Academy Science Letters, 36(5), 497-505.
- Tobias Bolch, Anil Kulkarni, Andreas K b, Christian Huggel, Frank Paul, Graham Cogley, Holger Frey, Jeffrey S. Kargel, Koji Fujita, Marlene Scheel, Markus Stoffel, Samjwal Bajracharya, 2012, The state and fate of Himalayan Glaciers, Science, 336, 310-314.
- T. N. Venkatesh, A. V. Kulkarni, and J. Srinivasan, 2012, Relative effect of slope and equilibrium line altitude on the retreat of Himalayan glaciers, The Cryosphere, 6, 301-311.
- Pratima Pandey, Anil V. Kulkarni, G. Venkataraman, 2012, Remote Sensing Study of Snowline Altitude at the End of Melting Season, Chandra-Bhaga Basin, Himachal Pradesh, 1980-2010, Geocarto International, DOI:10.1080/ 1010604 . 2012.705336.
- Rupal M. Brahmbhatt, I.M. Bahuguna, B.P Rathore, A.V. Kulkarni, H.C. Nainwal, R.D. Shah and Ajai, 2012, A comparative study of deglaciation in two neighboring basins (Warwan and Bhut) of Western Himalaya, Current Science 103 (3), 298-304.
- D. R. Gurung, A. V. Kulkarni, A. Giriraj, K. S. Aung, B. Shrestha, and J. Srinivasan, 2011, Changes in seasonal snow cover in Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, The Cryosphere Discussions, 5, 755�777.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore, S. K. Singh and I. M. Bahuguna, 2011, Understanding changes in Himalayan Cryosphere using remote sensing technique, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32(3), 601-615.
- Rupal M. Brahmbhatt, I. Bahuguna, B.P Rathore, A.V. Kulkarni, R.D. Shah, H.C. Nainwal and Ajai, 2011, Variation of snowline and Mass balance of glaciers of Warwan and Bhut basins of Western Himalaya using Remote sensing technique, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing. DOI 10.1007/s12524-011-0186-z,
- Deo Raj Gurung, A. V. Kulkarni, A. Giriraj, Khun San Aung, and Basanta Shrestha, 2011, Monitoring of seasonal snow cover in Bhutan using remote sensing technique, Current Science 101(10), 1364-1370.
- Deota B.S., Y. N. Trivedi, A.V. Kulkarni, I.M. Bahuguna, and B. P. Rathore, 2011, RS & GIS in mapping of Geomorphic Records and understanding the Local Controls of Glacial Retreat From The Baspa Valley,(H.P.), India, current science 100 (10), 1555-1563.
- B. P. Rathore, Kulkarni A. V., , S. S. Randhawa, I.M. Bahuguna and Ajai, 2011, Operationalization of snow and glacier melt runoff model to compute Hydropower Potential in Chenab basin, Himachal Pradesh, India, Journal of Geomatics 4(1), 53-59.
- Singh S.K., A. V. Kulkarni and B. S. Chaudhary, 2011, Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow reflectance using hyperspectral analysis, Journal Earth System Science 120 (2), 321-328.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore, S. K. Singh and Ajai, 2010, Distribution of Seasonal snow cover in Central and Western Himalaya, Annals of Glaciology 51(54), 123-128.
- S. K. Singh, A. V. Kulkarni and B. S. Chaudhary, 2010, Hyperspectral analysis of snow reflectance to understand the effects of contamination and grain size, Annals of Glaciology 51(54), 83-88.
- Kaur, R., A.V. Kulkarni, and Chaudhary, B.S., 2010, Using resourcesat-1 data for determination of snow cover and snow-line altitude, Baspa basin, India, Annals of Glaciology 50(54), 9-13.
- H. S. Negi, S.K. Singh, A. V. Kulkarni and B. S. Semwal, 2010, Field Based Spectral Reflectance Measurements of Seasonal Snow Cover in Indian Himalaya. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31(9), 2393-2417.
- Kulkarni A.V., , 2010, Moitoring Himalayan cryosphere using remote sensing techniques, Journal of Indian Institute of Science 90 (4), 457-469.
- Singh, K.K., A. V. Kulkarni, and V.D. Mishra, 2010, Estimation of glacier depth and moraine cover study using Ground Penetrating Radar in the Himalayan region, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 38(1), 1-9.
- Dhar, S., A.V Kulkarni, B.P. Rathore, R. Kalia, 2010, Reconstruction of the moraine dammed lake, based on field evidences and paleohistory, Samudra Tapu Glacier, Chandra Basin., Himachal Pradesh, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 38(1), 133-141.
- Manjeet Singh, V. D. Mishra, N. K. Thakur, A. V. Kulkarni and Mahavir Singh, 2010, Impact of Climatic parameters on statistical stream flow sensitivity analysis for hydro power, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 37(4), 601-614.
- Negi, H.S., A.V. Kulkarni, and B.S. Semwal, 2009, Study of Contaminated and Mixed Objects Snow Reflectance in Indian Himalaya using Spectroradiometer, International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 30, No. 2, 315-325.
- Rathore, B.P., A. V. Kulkarni,., and N. K. Sherasia., 2009, Understanding future changes in snow and glacier melt runoff due to global warming in Wangar Gad basin, India, Current Science, 97(7), 1077-1081.
- H S Negi, A.V.Kulkarni and B.S. Semwal, 2009, Estimation of snow cover distribution in Beas basin, Indian Himalaya using satellite data and ground measurements, J. Earth Syst. Sci., 118 (5), 525�538
- Rakesh Kaur, D. Sasikumar, A. V. Kulkarni and B.S.Chaudhary, 2009, Variation in snow cover and snow line altitude in Baspa basin, Current Science 96(9), 1255-1258.
- Kulkarni A.V., I. M. Bahuguna and B. P. Rathore, 2009, Application of Remote Sensing to monitor glaciers, NNRMS Bulletin, NNRMS (B)-33, 79-82.
- Bahuguna I. M., A. V. Kulkarni and S. R. Nayak, 2008, Impact of slope on DEM extracted from IRS 1C PAN stereo images covering Himalayan glaciated regions: A few case studies. International Journal of Geoinformatics 4(2), 21-28.
- I. M. Bahuguna, A. V. Kulkarni, Shailesh Nayak, B. P. Rathore, H. S. Negi and P. Mathur, 2007, Himalayan glaciers retreat using IRS 1C PAN stereo data, International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(2), 437-442.
- Kulkarni A.V, I. M. Bahuguna, B. P. Rathore, S.K. Singh, S. S. Randhawa, R. K. Sood and Sunil Dhar, 2007, Glacial retreat in Himalaya using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data, Current Science 92(1), 69-74.
- Kulkarni, A. V., 2007, Effect of Global warming on the Himalayan Cryosphere, Jalvigyan Sameeksha Vol. 22, 93-108.
- Kulkarni A. V., S. K. Singh, P. Mathur and V. D. Mishra, 2006, Algorithm to monitor snow cover using AWiFS data of RESOURCESAT for the Himalayan region, International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 27, No. 12, 2449-2457.
- Kulkarni, A. V., Sunil Dhar, B. P. Rathore, Babu Govindha Raj K and Rajeev Kalia, 2006, Recession of Samundra Tapu glacier, Chadra river basin, Himachal Pradesh, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol.34, No. 1, 39-46.
- Y.N.Trivedi, B.S.Deota, B.P.Rathore, I.M.Bahuguna, A.V.Kulkarni, 2006, IRS images for glacial geomorphological studies of baspa valley, Indian journal of geomorphology Vol. (1&2), pp. 79-92.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore, Suresh Mahajan and P. Mathur, 2005, Alarming retreat of Parbati Glacier, Beas basin, Himachal Pradesh, Current Science 88(11), 1844-1850.
- Bahuguna, I. M. and A.V. Kulkarni, 2005, Application of Digital Elevation Model and Ortho images derived from IRS-1C stereo data in monitoring variations in glacial dimensions. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 33(1), 107-112.
- Randhawa S. S., R. K. Sood, B. P. Rathore and A. V. Kulkarni, 2005, Moraine �dammed lakes study in Chenab and Satluj river basins using IRS data. Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 33(2), 285-290.
- Bahuguna I. M., A. V. Kulkarni and S. R. Nayak, 2004, DEM from IRS 1C PAN stereo coverage over Himalayan Glaciated Region, International Journal of Remote Sensing 25(19), 4029-4041.
- Kulkarni, A.V., B. P. Rathore and Suja Alex, 2004, Monitoring of glacial mass balance in the Baspa basin using Accumulation Area Ratio method, Current science 86(1), 101-106.
- Srinivasulu J. and A. V. Kulkarni, 2004, A Satellite based Spectral Reflectance Model for Snow and Glacier Studies in the Himalayan Terrain, Proc. of the Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth and Planet. Sci.) 113 (1), 117-128.
- Bahuguna I. M., B. P. Rathore, H. S. Negi, A. V. Kulkarni and P. Mathur, 2004, Fusion of panchromatic and multispectral Indian Remote Sensing satellite images for identification of the Gangotri glacier snout, GSI Special publication number 80, 53-60.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and B. P. Rathore, 2003. Snow cover monitoring in Baspa basin using IRS WiFS data, Mausam 54(1), 335-34.
- Kulkarni, A. V. and Suja Alex, 2003, Estimation of recent glacial variations in Baspa basin using remote sensing technique, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 31(2), 81-90.
- Kulkarni A.V and I. M. Bahuguna, 2002, Glacial retreat in the Baspa Basin, Himalayas, monitored with satellite stereo data, Journal of Glaciology48 (160), 171-172.
- Kulkarni A.V., P. Mathur, B.P. Rathore, Suja Alex, N. Thakur and Manoj Kumar, 2002. Effect of Global warming on snow ablation pattern in the Himalayas, Current Science83(2), 120-123.
- Kulkarni A.V, J. Srinivasulu, S. S. Manjul and P. Mathur, 2002, Field based spectral reflectance to develop NDSI method for snow cover monitoring, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 30 (1 & 2), 73-80.
- Kulkarni A.V, S. S. Randhawa, B. P. Rathore, I. M. Bahuguna and R.K. Sood, 2002. A snow and glacier melt runoff model to estimate hydropower potential, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing 30 (4), 221-228.
- Kulkarni A.V, 2001, Effect of climate variations on Himalayan Glaciers: A case study of upper Chandra River basin, in Remote Sensing Applications (Ed. M.G. Srinivas), Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp. 477-486.
- Kulkarni A.V and I. M. Bahuguna, 2001, Role of Satellite images in snow and glacial investigations, GSI Special Publication Number53, 233-240.
- Kulkarni A. V, 2000, Glacier inventory and Moraine-Dammed outburst floods in the Upper Chandra river basin, Himachal Pradesh, in Contributions to environmental Geoscience (Commemoration volume in honor of Prof. K. B. Powar), eds: A. M. Pathan and S. S. Thigle, Aravali publication, New Delhi, pp. 175-185.,/li>
- Kulkarni A.V., G. Philip, V.C. Thakur, R.K.Sood, S.S. Randhawa and Ram Chandra, 1999, Glacial inventory of the Satluj Basin using remote sensing technique, Himalayan Geology Vol. 20(2), pp. 45-52.
- Kulkarni A.V., 1996, Moraine-dammed glacial lake studies using remote sensing technique, Himalayan Geology Vol. 17, pp 161-164.
- Kulkarni A.V., 1994, A conceptual model to assess effect of climatic variations on distribution of Himalayan glaciers, Global change studies-scientific results from ISRO Geosphere Biosphere Programme, ISRO-GBP-SR-42-94, pp.321-326.
- Kulkarni A.V., 1992, Mass balance of Himalayan glaciers using AAR and ELA methods, Journal of Glaciology 38(128), 101-104.
- Kulkarni, A.V. 1992,Glacier inventory in the Himalaya, Natural resources management - a new perspective, NNRMS- Bangalore publication pp. 474-478.
- Ramamoothi,A.S., S. Thiruvengadachari and A.V. Kulkarni, 1991, IRS-1A Applications in Hydrology and Water Resources, Current Sciences, 61 (3 and 4), 180-188
- Kulkarni, A.V., 1991, Glacier inventory in Himachal Pradesh using satellite data, Journal of Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 19(3), pp 195-203.
- AV Kulkarni, "Origin and Distribution of Glacial Lakes: A Case Study in Tista Basin, India", Conference paper: American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, At San Francisco, 2015.
- Sayli A. Tawde, AV Kulkarni, G Bala, "Estimation of glacier mass balance: An approach based on satellite derived transient snowlines and a temperature index model driven by meteorological observations", American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, At San Francisco, Abstracts, 2015.
- P Gantayat, AV Kulkarni, J Srinivasan, 2009, "Estimating the Bedrock Topography of the Gangotri Glacier in India", American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, At San Francisco, Abstracts, 2014.
- R Brahmbhatt, IM Bahuguna, BP Rathore, AV Kulkarni, R Shah, "Impact of glacio-morphological parameters in the glacier change: A case study of parts of Western Himalaya, India", American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, At San Francisco, Abstracts, 2014.
- Manjeet Singh, V .D. Mishra, N. K. Thakur, A. V. Kulkarni and Mahavir Singh, 2009, Effect of climate variations on monthly and seasonal snow melt runoff using remote sensing and GIS techniques, Proc. of International Symposium on Snow and Avalanches, Manali, 8-14.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore and S. K. Singh, 2008, Monitoring of seasonal snow cover in the Western Himalaya, Proc. of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai, 85-92.
- R. P. Gupta, A. Shukla, M. K. Arora and A. V. Kulkarni, 2008, Mapping moraine cover in Himalayas using IRS 1C-LISS-III Data, Proc. of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai, 155-163.
- Rakesh Kaur, A. V. Kulkarni and B. S. Chaudhary, 2008, Automatic extraction of area altitude distribution of glaciers in Baspa basin, Proc. of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai, 170-176.
- A. K Sharma, Sushil Singh and A. V. Kulkarni, 2008, Approach for Himalayan glacier inventory using remote sensing and GIS techniques, Proc. of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai, 177-188.
- I. M. Bahuguna, B. P. Rathore and A. V. Kulkarni, 2008, Application of multitemporal Resourcesat-1 data to assess mass balance: A case study of Miyar basin, Proc. (Annexure) of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai.
- S. K. Singh, H. S. Negi and A. V. Kulkarni, 2008, Study of snowpack characteristics using field spectroradiometer in Beas basin, H. P. Proc. (Annexure) of International workshop on Snow, Ice, Glacier and Avalanches, Mumbai.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2006, Glacial retreat in Himalaya using Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6411.
- Negi, H. S., A. V. Kulkarni and S. K. Singh, 2006, Effect of contamination and mixed objects on snow reflectance using spectroradiometer in Beas Basin, India, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6411.
- Deota B. S., Y. N. Trivedi, I. M. Bahuguna, A.V. Kulkarni and B. P. Rathore, 2006, Geomorphic records of paleoglacial activity from the Upper Reaches of Baspa valley, H. P., Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6412.
- Kulkarni A. V., P. Mathur, S. K. Singh, B. P. Rathore and N. Thakur, Remote sensing based techniques for snow cover monitoring for the Himalayan region, Proc. International Symposium on Snow Monitoring and Avalanches, Manali, 399-405.
- Bahuguna I. M. and A. V. Kulkarni, 2004. Prospects of satellite photogrammetric remote sensing for Himalayan snow and glaciated region, Proc. International Symposium on Snow Monitoring and Avalanches, Manali, 475-480.
- Manjul S. S. and A. V. Kulkarni, 2004. Design and development of ground truth radiometer (GTR), for spectral reflectance data collection in visible and middle infrared MODIS bands, Proc. International Symposium on Snow Monitoring and Avalanches, Manali, 467-474.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore and Suja Alex, 2002. Is global warming changing snow ablation pattern and reducing glacial extent of Baspa basin in the Himalaya? ISPRS and SIS, Vol. 37, Part 7, 1265-1269.
- Srinivasulu, J. A. V. Kulkarni, V. D. Mishra, and P. Mathur, 2002, Field based Hyperspectral Reflectance Studies to Monitor Snowpack Characteristics in the Himalayan Terrain. ISPRS and SIS, Vol. 37, Part 7, 15-18.
- Manjul, S. S., A. V. Kulkarni and J. Srinivasulu, 2002, Design and Development of a Ratio Radiometer for Snow and Glacial Studies. ISPRS and SIS, 37 (7), 36-41.
- Bahuguna I. M., A. V. Kulkarni and S. R. Nayak, 2002, Evaluation and application of satellite stereo data (PAN of IRS-1C) for developing deglaciation model for a Himalayan Glacier. ISPRS and SIS, 37 (7), 832-835.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Granberg, H.B., 1986, Measurements of spectral radiation inside a snow pack, Proc. 43 rd Eastern Snow Conference, Hanover, N H., U.S.A.
- Randhawa S.S., R.K. Sood and A.V. Kulkarni, 2001, Delineation of Moraine-Dammed lakes in Himachal Pradesh using high resolution IRS-LISS III satellite data, Proceedings of National Symposium in Advances in Remote Sensing Technology with Special Emphasis on High Resolution Imagery, Ahmedabad.
- Kulkarni A. V., B. P. Rathore, Suja Alex, P. Mathur, N. Thakur and Manoj Kumar, 2001, Snow cover monitoring in Beas basin using IRS WiFS data, Proceedings of National Snow Science Meet, SASE, Manali, 151-155.
- Bahuguna I. M., and A.V. Kulkarni, 2001, Application of Digital Elevation Model and Ortho images derived from IRS PAN stereo data in Monitoring variations in Glacial Dimensions, Proc. of National Symposium in Advances in Remote Sensing Technology with Special Emphasis on High Resolution Imagery, Ahmedabad.
- Kulkarni A.V., P. Basak, S.S. Randhawa and R.K. Sood, 1999, Estimation of seasonal snow cover contributing into snow melt runoff models in winter season, Proceedings of National Snow Science Workshop 1999 (NSSW-99) organized by Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Manali, pp. 151-155.
- Kulkarni A. V., S. S. Randhawa and R. K. Sood, 1998, A stream-flow simulation model in snow-covered areas to estimate hydro-power potential, Proceedings of Intl. conference on Hydro Power Development, 70-82.
- Kulkarni, A. V; S.S. Randhawa and R.K. Sood, 1997, A stream flow simulation model in snow covered areas to estimate Hydro-power potential: a case study of Malana nala, H.P., Proc. of first international conference on Renewable Energy- Small Hydro, Hyderabad, 761-770.
- T. N. Venkatesh, J. Srinivasan , and A. V. Kulkarni 2012, Studies on the dynamics of glaciers, CSIR-NAL- Bangalore.
- Deo Raj Gurung, A. Giriraj, Khun San Aung, Basanta Shrestha, and A. V. Kulkarni 2011, Snow-Cover Mapping and monitoring in the Hindu Kush Himalaya, ICIMOD-Kathmandu Nepal report.
- Smriti Basnett, A. V. Kulkarni, M.L. Arrawatia, and D. G. Shrestha, 2011, Glacier Studies in Sikkim Himalaya, Report number IISC/DCCC/GLACIER /TR / 001/2011.
- A.V. Kulkarni, I. M. Bahuguna, B. P. Rathore, R. K. Sood, S. S. Randhawa, M. Kaul and S. Dhar, 2007, Monitoring the retreat of Himalayan glaciers using satellite data, SAC/RESIPA/MESG/SGP/SN28/2007.
- H. S. Negi, A.V. Kulkarni, R. P. Prajapati, S. K. Singh and J. K. Sharma, 2006, Effect of contamination and mixed objects on snow reflectance using spectroradiometer, RSAM/SAC/RESIPA/MWRG-GLI/SN 25/2005.
- A. K. Sharma, S. K. Singh and A. V. Kulkarni, 2006, Technical guidelines for glacier inventory (Indus, Ganga and Bramhputra basins), SAC/RESIPA/MESG/ SGP/ TN27/2007.
- S. K. Singh, H. S. Negi, Babu Govindh Raj K., A. V. Kulkarni and J. K. Sharma, 2005, Spectral reflectance investigations of snow and other objects using ASD radiometer. RSAM/SAC/RESIPA/MWRG-GLI/SN 23/2005.
- Kulkarni A.V, B. P. Rathore, S.S. Randhawa and R.K. Sood, 2002, Snow and glacier melt runoff estimation at Kirang Khad Satluj basin to assess hydro power potential, SAC/RESA/MWRG-GLI/SN/20/20002.
- Manjul S.S., A.V. Kulkarni and Suja Alex, 2000, Spectral reflectance of snow in visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared region, Scientific Note no. SAC/RESA/MWRD-GLI/SN/14/2000.
- Bahuguna I.M. and A.V. Kulkarni, 1999, DEM and ortho image generation using IRS-1C pan stereo data and its applications in Glacial studies: First experimental results, SAC/RESA/ /MWRD-GLI/SN/12/1999.
- Kulkarni, A.V and Bahuguna I. M., 1997, Glacier Inventory and identification of glacial lakes in the Dhauliganga basin using remote sensing technique, RSAM/SAC/RSAG/MWRD-GLI/SN/08/97.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Narain, A. 1990, Remote sensing based glacier inventory in the Sikkim state, Scientific note no. SAC/RSA/RSAG- MWRD/ SN/01/90.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Narain, A. 1989, Application of IRS-1A data for glacier study: A case study of Gangotri Glacier, Scientific note no. SAC/RSA/RSAG-MWRD/SN/01/89.
- Dhanju, M.S. and Kulkarni, A.V., 1988 Application of remote sensing technique for the study of Parbati-Spiti glacier complex in H.P.Himalaya, Scientific paper no. ISRO/SAC/RSA/ Glaciers/4/ 88, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Dhanju. M.S., 1987, Measurements of spectral radiance of glacier snow and ice features in the Himalaya, Technical note number ISRO/SAC/RSA/ GLACIER/3/87.
- Kulkarni, A.V., 1986, Effect of liquid water content of snow on spectral reflectance of a snow pack, McGill Geography Discussion papers, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2.1-2.8p.
- Kulkarni, A.V. and Navalgund, R.R., 1982, Snow mapping, Bhaskara-II TV data utilisation in resources studies, ISRO Technical note no. ISRO-SAC-TR-26-82, 23-29.
- A.V.Kulkarni, B.P.Rathore, S.S.Randhawa, R.K.Sood and Manoj Kaul, 2005, Glacier Atlas Chenab Basin (H. P.), RSAM/SAC/RSA/RESIPA/MWRG-GLI/ SN22 / 2005, 52p.
- Bahuguna,I.M., A.V.Kulkarni, M.L.Arrawatia and D.G.Shresta, 2001, Glacier Atlas of Tista Basin (Sikkim Himalaya), SAC/RESA/MWRG-GLI/SN/16/2001.
- A.V.Kulkarni, V.C.Thakur, G.Phillips, Ram Chandra, S.S.Randhawa and R.K.Sood, 1996, Glacier atlas of Satluj basin, RSAM/SAC/RSAG/ MWRD-GLI/ SN/05 / 96, 95p.
- Kulkarni,A.V. and Buch, A.M., 1991, Glacier Atlas of Indian Himalaya, SAC/RSA/ RSAG- MWRD/SN/05/91.
- A.V. Kulkarni, 2015, "Water Security Of North Indian Rivers Under Climate Change Scenario", Presented at Institute for Water, Environment and Health, United Nations University, Hamilton, Canada, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3718.9207, December 22, 2015.
- A.V. Kulkarni, 2015, "Himalayan Glaciology: Challenges and possibilities", Conference paper: Himalayan River Basins: Hydrology and Glacial regimes, At National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee, November, 2015.
- A.V. Kulkarni, 2015, Arvachin Havaman Badal- manvi hastkhep and parinam (in Marathi) (Climate change and antropocene). Gopal Krishna College, Kolahpur, Maharashtra, March 20, 2015.
- A.V. Kulkarni, 2015, Himalayan Glaciers: Source of water, Guest lecture on occasion of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite day by Indian Remote Sensing Society, Bangalore Chapter, ISRO Satellite Centre on March 17, 2015.
- A.V. Kulkarni, 2015, Mass balance and climate change of the Himalayan Glaciers, Indo-Swiss training program, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, January 15, 2015.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Himalayan Glaciers: What we know - don’t know, Keynote address at National Conference on Himalayan Glaciology, Shimla,30-31 October 2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Observations of Himalayan snow and glaciers, Sixth annual climate change workshop at INCOIS, Hyderabad,01-02 September 2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Remote sensing technique for glacier studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University,New Delhi,25 August 2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Glacier Studies, National Institute of Technology, Surat,14 July 2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Spectral Response of Snow and Ice, Remote Sensing Applications Centre, Lucknow, June 25,2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in snow cover monitoring and mapping. Remote Sensing Applications Centre, Lucknow, June 25,2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Glacier as source of water: The Himalaya, Paper for Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences Workshop on Sustainable Humanity, Sustainable Nature: Our Responsibility 2-6 May 2014 Casina Pio IV,Vatican City
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Climate change and Himalayan cryosphere, Indian Institute of Technology-Gandhinagar,Ahmedabad, March 3,2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Climate change and Himalayan cryosphere, Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai, February 26,2014.
- Kulkarni A.V., 2014, Remote sensing and Himalayan glaciers, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujrat,February 17, 2014
- Kulkarni A. V., 2013, Climate Change and Himalayan Cryosphere, Bangalore University, Bangalore, September 26, 2013.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2013, Is rate of glacial retreat accelerated in Indian Himalaya? AGU fall meeting 2013.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2013, State of Himalayan Glaciers, Plenary talk at PAGES 4th Open Science Meeting, February 14, 2013, Goa.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2013, Snow and Glacier studies at Divecha Centre for Climate Change, Invited talk at Indo-German workshop on Environmental Challenges in Asia, Deutsches GeoFoschungzentrum Potsdam, Germany, January 15, 2013.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2012, Influence of climate change on Himalayan glaciers, Presented at workshop on Climate change: is it really happening, December 22, 2012, Gopal Krishna Gokhale College, Kolhapur.
- Kulkarni A. V., 2012, Understanding Glacier Dynamics in the Himalaya, Presented at seminar on Natural disasters and climate change in Asia, University of Kebangsaan, Bangi, Malaysia.
- Training on Glacier, Climate Change and Remote Sensing,
July 18-29, 2016 - IISc, Bangalore.
- Training on Glacier, Climate Change and Remote Sensing,
June 8-19, 2015 - IISc, Bangalore
- Training on Glacier, Climate Change and Remote Sensing,
May 26-June 6, 2014 - IISc, Bangalore.
- Indo-swiss training programme on Capacity Building in Himalayan Glaciology - Level I & II
April 1 to April 27, 2013 - Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
- Training on Glacier Studies, Climate Change and Remote Sensing,
March 4-15, 2013 - IISc, Bangalore
- Training on Snow Studies, Climate Change and Remote Sensing,
December 12-23, 2011, IISc, Bangalore
- Remote sensing for glaciological studies
April 21-May 2, 2003 , SASE, Manali
- Application of remote sensing of snow, ice and glacier studies.
May 1-6, 2000, SASE, Manali.
Current Graduate Students
- Remya S N, 2017 - Indian Institute of Technology (ISM),Dhanbad. India
- Ashim Sattar, 2015 - Indian Institute of Technology,Roorkee. India
- Sayli A.Tawde, 2013 - Indian Institute of science,Bangalore. India
Thesis Title: Modelling glacier mass balance in association with climate change
- Mr. Kamal Kant Singh ,2012 - National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra.
Thesis Title: Use of Remote sensing for Snow, Ice and Glacier
- Mr. Prateek Gantayat, 2013- Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Thesis Title: GlacierDynamics
- G Vinay Kumar, 2013 - Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum
Thesis Title: Monitoring and Modelling the mass balance in Baspa basin.
Previous Graduate Students
- Ms. Rupal Brahmbhatt, 2010 - H. N. B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, India
Thesis Title: Snow and glacier studies using remote sensing technique
- Ms. Smriti Bassnett, 2013 - Nirma University, Ahmedabad
Thesis Title: Snow and glacier monitoring in Sikkim
- Mr. Sushil Kumar Singh, 2013 - Kurukshetra University
Thesis Title: Hyper spectral data analysis for snow studies
- Ms. Aparna Shukla, 2009 - Indian Institute of Technology -Roorkee
Thesis Title: Remote Sensing based glacier terrain mapping in parts of Chenab basin, Himalaya
- H. S. Negi, 2009 - Garwal University Srinagar.
Thesis Title: Spectral properties of snow and snow cover distribution in Beas Basin (HP).
- Mr. Prateek Gantaya, 2013 - Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Thesis Title: Glacier dynamics
- Mr. Ankush Sharma, 2011 - Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Thesis Title: Glacier mass balance modelling
- Pinaki Mallick, 2005 - Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)-Roorkee
Thesis Title: Estimation of spectral reflectance of snow and glacial features using satellite images
- Niti Bhusan Mishra, 2007 - Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Thesis Title: Glacier mass balance modelling
- B. P. Rathore, 2005 - L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad
Thesis Title: Snow and glacier melt runoff modelling to assess hydropower using remote sensing and GIS techniques
- B. P. Rathore, 2005 - L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad
Thesis Title: Snow and glacier melt runoff modelling to assess hydropower using remote sensing and GIS techniques
- Chairman, Program Advisory Committee on Himalayan Glaciology, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi.
- Member,Research Advisory Committee of National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research,Goa, India.
- Member, Project Appraisal and Monitoring Committee for Hydrology and Cryosphere, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India, New Delhi.
- Member, Indo-Swiss Joint Working group on Glaciology.
April 1 to April 27, 2013 - Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
- Member, Steering Committee, Himachal Pradesh state Centre for Climate Change
- Member, Glacier, snow and Climate Change commission, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok.
- National Geoscience Award-2014
- Team leader, Team Excellence Award-2008, Indian Space Research Organisation
- National Geoscience Award-2008
- Canadian Commonwealth Fellowship (1984-1986)
"The State and Fate of Himalayan Galciers"
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE, BANGALORE 560012, INDIA
A paper entitled,
"The state and fate of Himalayan glaciers" published in prestigious journal of SCIENCE on April 20, 2012. This is a review article coauthored by Anil Kulkarni, Distinguished Visiting Scientist at Divecha Centre for Climate Change and it provides contemporary understanding of Himalayan glaciers and possible changes in near future.
WHY STUDY HIMALAYAN GLACIERS ?
Himalayan glaciers are a focus of public and scientific debate, as almost 800 million people live in the catchments of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra, and rely to varying extents on the water released from glaciers. Therefore, numerous investigators from different parts of the world has carried out studies to understand changes in distribution of glaciers in Himalayan and Karakoram (H-K) region.
HOW MUCH WATER STORED IN HIMALAYA ?
Numerous investigations based on historical data suggest that glacial extent in H-K region is varying from 49650 to 43178 km2. Recent investigation based on satellite images suggest an area extent of 40800 km2. In the Indian H-K region the estimate is varying from 23300 to 26757 km2. In this region, volume measurements are available for few glaciers, therefore, models were applied to estimate volume of glaciers. Empirical estimates are highly uncertain and range from about 2300 km�, taking the slope-dependent ice thickness into account, to ~3600 -~6500 km� based on volume-area scaling. The uncertainties in these estimates is very large, however, these estimates are substantially less than 13,300 km3 estimate presented in Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC.
WHAT IS RATE OF RETREAT?
The loss in glacier area is already estimated for more than six thousand glaciers covering an aerial extent of twenty thousand sq km. These glaciers are distributed in all parts of H-K region and covers almost half of the total glaciated extent. The glaciers in H-K region are losing an average 0.4% area per year. This is general tendency and loss in area is different in different parts of H-K region. The length measurements are also available for more than 100 glaciers in H-K region. These are retreating from mid-19th century, expect 1920-1940, where half of glaciers were stationary or advancing. Some large glaciers in Karakoram are stable or advancing. However, assessment based on length measurements could be misleading, as recent investigations have shown that even if glaciers are losing same amount of mass, its retreat could be influenced by slope and length. Therefore, it would be useful to understand changes in glacial mass to assess future changes in glacial extent.
HOW MUCH LOSS IN GLACIAL MASS ?
Measurements of mass budget for glaciers in H-K region are relatively few and for short duration. The available data suggest that mass budget over large part of Himalaya has been negative over past decades and rate of loss is increased after roughly 1995. Rough estimates suggest that glaciers in Indian Himalaya losing mass at the rate of 16 Gt per year. The loss in mass for many small glaciers located in low altitude range could be larger than mean and it could be as high as 1 m per year. This is substantial loss considering mean depth of small glaciers could be between 30 and 50 m. These small glaciers and ice fields are important source of water for many mountain communities. By considering small volume and large mass loss, this source of water could be significantly influenced in near future and could affect sustainability of many mountain communities. Therefore, major program needs to be undertaken to study changes in small glaciers and its impact on local communities.
NEED TO MONITOR HIMALAYAN GLACIERS
The investigations in Indian Himalaya suggest that most of the glaciers are retreating and also loosing mass. This consistent shrinkage in mass and areal extent can affect stream runoff over a long term. In addition this process can be further influenced if more glacier lakes are formed due to increase in debris cover and if Black Carbon is transported in accumulation areas of the glaciers. Therefore, continuous monitoring is needed to understand changing dynamics of Himalayan glaciers.